Answers and explanations
1. A: The answer to a question about the title of a passage has to be broad enough to cover the entire passage. Choices B, C, and D are wrong because, although the author does mention these issues, they are not the main focus of the article. The phrases “in the past,” “this view of asthma,” and “more recent explanations of asthma,” which begin several paragraphs in a row, indicate that choice A is the best summary of the passage and is the correct answer.
2. C: The bulleted list of abnormalities that characterize asthma provides the answer to this question. While choices A and B are partially correct, choice C is more encompassing. Choice D can be eliminated, as the bronchial system is not mentioned in the bulleted list.
3. D: Paragraph 2 provides the answer to this question, in the explanatory phrase following the word bronchodilation, “or getting the bronchial muscles to relax.” Choice A can be eliminated because the word constriction means the opposite of dilation. Choice B can be eliminated because it is asthma itself, not bronchodilation that is called a “disordered immune response” in paragraph 4. As for choice C, it can be eliminated because the bronchial system is separate from the lungs.
4. B: While it is true that a person with asthma might also have high blood pressure, the high blood pressure is completely separate from asthma and would be treated differently. Furthermore, high blood pressure is not mentioned in the article.
5. D: Based on information in the last paragraph, choices A and B can both be eliminated. The word completely is the giveaway in choice A—while asthma symptoms can be treated by bronchodilators, the causes are not treated. Choice B is obviously wrong because bronchodilators are used to treat the symptoms. Choice C can be eliminated because it describes an outdated view of asthma.
6. A: Knowing that the root word dilate means “to become or make wider, larger, or more open” leads to choice A as the correct answer. None of the other answer choices is supported by the information in the article.
7. C: In the last paragraph, the clause “its effects last for shorter and shorter periods” supports choice C as the correct answer. It is clear that choices A, B, and D are incorrect, since bronchodilators are of some use to asthmatics who are in the middle of an asthma attack.
8. D: It is clear that choice A is incorrect, since the author says that the “frequent use of bronchodilators” is now seen as a problem. Choice B can be eliminated, as the author sees treating the symptoms rather than the causes as the basic problem with the use of bronchodilators. Choice C is clearly wrong, as the author never touches on this subject. Choice D, the correct answer, is supported by the last paragraph of the article.
9. C: The answer is found in the opening sentence of the article.
10. D: Knowing that the Greek word osteon means “bone,” you can infer that an osteopath treats bones.
11. A: Because people with osteopenia are “at risk of developing osteoporosis,” you can infer that the condition of osteopenia is less serious than osteoporosis and is an earlier, less advanced version of the condition.
12. C: Support for this answer can be found in paragraph 2. Knowing that the vertebrae are the bones in the spine, you can easily eliminate III as an answer choice, thus eliminating choices B and D. Choice A is correct but, but choice C includes all possible correct answers.
13. B: You have to do a little arithmetic to figure this one out. Paragraph 3 informs us that 300,000 Americans a year break a hip, and that one in five such patients die within a year. One in five translates to 20%, and 20% of 300,000 is 60,000.
14. B: The last sentence of paragraph 3 provides the answer to this one. Cancer and Alzheimer’s disease are not mentioned, so you can eliminate any answer choice that includes II and IV. Therefore, cross out choices A, C, and D, leaving you with only B as a possible choice.
15. D: Because the author mentions the avoidance of smoking as a method of maintaining bone mass and density, you can infer that smoking has a negative effect on bone density. Thus, D is the obvious correct choice and B and C can be eliminated. We know that smoking causes lung cancer (choice A), but this fact is not mentioned in the article, so choice A can be crossed out.
16. A: The answer to this question is found in the last two sentences of the article.
17. C: The answer to a main idea question must be broad enough to cover the entire article. While choices A, B, and D are all mentioned in the article, each one is a mere detail that supports the main idea, choice C.
18. D: Support for D as the correct answer can be found in paragraph 2.
19. B: You have to do a little arithmetic to figure this one out. In paragraph 3, we find out that 35% of patients receiving lithium during a study suffered a relapse. This means that 65% did not. Hence, choice B is the correct answer.
20. A: Support for choice A as the correct answer can be found in paragraph 4. Choice B can be eliminated because we see from the last paragraph that discontinuation of lithium must be gradual. Choice C can be eliminated because a diuretic is mentioned as a treatment for polyuria-polydipsia, not for hypothyroidism. Choice D, putting the patient on valproate or carbamazepine is another possible alternative treatment in cases of polyuria-polydipsia, so it can be eliminated as well.